From Wenlin Dictionaries


References cited in Zìdiǎn entries

Note: Abbreviations are used in Zìdiǎn entries. These abbreviations are expanded when editing is not enabled. Each abbreviation has the form “X.N” in which one or more letters “X” indicating the source are followed by the same number of “.” dots, followed by “N” a reference identifying the location (typically a page number) in the source.

For example, these abbreviations:

#rG.521.31 K.AD860,GS1120h,GSR1120h D.4.2644.16 M.6213 KX..786.07 B.084.1.05 E.1

may be expanded to:

▷references: Guǎngyùn:521.31; Karlgren:AD860,GS1120h,GSR1120h; Hànyǔ Dà Zìdiǎn:4.2644.16; Mathews:6213; Kāngxī Zìdiǎn:786.07; Bǐshùn Guīfàn:084.1.05; EDOC:1

and linked to the information below.

ABC Dictionary [A]

• ABC English-Chinese/Chinese-English Dictionary. John DeFrancis and Zhang Yanyin, eds. Thomas Bishop, Victor H. Mair, Zhang Liqing, Zhang Yanhua, associate editors. University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-8248-3485-2 [1].

• ABC Chinese-English Comprehensive Dictionary. John DeFrancis, ed. University of Hawai‘i Press, 2003. ISBN: 0-8248-2766-X.

• ABC Chinese-English Dictionary. John DeFrancis, ed. University of Hawai‘i Press, 1996. ISBN: 0-8248-1744-3.

Gě Běnyí 葛本仪 [GBY]

• 《实用中国语言学词典》 Shíyòng Zhōngguó Yǔyánxué Cídiǎn. 葛本仪 (主编), 殷焕先 (审订), 等. 青岛: 青岛出版社, 1992 [1993; ISBN: 7-5436-0773-5/H.6.]

Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn 《漢語大詞典》 [C]

• 《漢語大詞典》. 汉语大詞典编辑委员会. 上海古籍印刷出版社, 2001 [2003]. ISBN: 7-5432-0016-3/H.17.

In 12 volumes (23 books, including the slender index volume, and the new 《漢語大詞典·訂補》 errata/addenda volume [2010; ISBN: 978-7-5326-3236-7]), HDC has more than 18,000 pages. [Pinyin index data after: 《汉语大词典词目音序索引》 An Alphabetical Index to the Hanyu Da Cidian. Victor Mair (梅维恒), Ed., Fang Shizeng (方世增), Assoc. Ed., Xu Wenkan (徐文堪), Tian Guozheng (田国忠), Copy Eds.; University of Hawai‘i Press, 2004. ISBN: 0-8248-2816-X; raw electronic data provided by Mair, corrected and converted to Unicode for Wenlin Institute by Richard Cook (曲理查). Note: In Wenlin Zidian entries, pinyin citations marked “?” indicate Index errata (or possible errata).]

Hànyǔ Dà Zìdiǎn 《漢語大字典》 [D]

• 《漢語大字典》, 湖北辭書出版社, Wuhan, 1988. ISBN: 7-5403-0030-2/H.16.

In eight volumes, HDZ has over 54,000 entries! References have the form “1.279.6”, meaning volume 1, page 279, 6th entry on the page. Volume 8 references are to the 补遗 (addendum), where the page numbers start over after page 5746. NOTE: if an asterisk (*) follows the notation, the character is not actually in Hànyǔ Dà Zìdiǎn, but might have been at the given page and position if it had been included. See “kHanYu” in Unihan Database documentation (UAX #38): [2].

Henshall [H]

• A GUIDE TO REMEMBERING JAPANESE CHARACTERS by Kenneth G. Henshall, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo, Japan, 1988, 1992.

Kāngxī Zìdiǎn [KX]

• 《康熙字典》 Kāngxī Zìdiǎn. 中華書局出版 (北京王府井大街36號); 新華書店北京發行所發行. 北京未來科學技術研究所印刷廠印刷. [787 x 1092 毫米 1/32 · 52 3/4 印張; 1958 年 1 月第 1 版 1997 年 2 月北京年 9 次印刷; 印數: 590601— 610600 冊 定價: 68.00 元; ISBN: 7—101—00518—7/Z·56.] Wénlín mappings merge and resolve differences among the following three Unicode 6.1 Kāngxī properties: kKangXi; kIRGKangXi; kIRG_GSource (“KX” subset). For more information, see the property descriptions in UAX #38.

Karlgren, Bernhard [K]

(Abbreviations: K.AD, K.GS, K.GSR)

• “Karlgren(1923)” = “K.AD”: Analytic Dictionary of Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Bernhard Karlgren. Dover Publications (reprint), Inc., New York, 1974. [Originally published in 1923.]

• “Karlgren(1940)” = “K.GS”: Grammata Serica. Bernhard Karlgren. Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities No. 12, Stockholm, 1940. [Reprinted by Elanders Boktryckeri A.-B., Gothenburg, 1940.]

• “Karlgren(1957)” = “K.GSR”: Grammata Serica Recensa. Bernhard Karlgren. Stockholm, 1957 [Revision of K.GS.] 《中日漢字形聲再論》, 高本漢.

Quotations attributed to “--Karlgren” (with no year specified) are generally from Karlgren(1923), Analytic Dictionary. Notations like “K.AD555” refer to Karlgren(1923), where a number such as “555” is the section number. Notations like “K.GS777” refer to Karlgren(1940), Grammata Serica, where “777” is the set number. Similarly, “K.GSR...” refers to Grammata Serica Recensa. The abbreviation “GS” in Seal character entries refers to GSR, and presents Cook’s reworking of Tor Ulving’s index to GSR. See “kGSR” in Unihan Database documentation (UAX #38): <a href=''></a>.

Lǐ Lèyì 李乐毅 [LLY, LLYJ]

• 《汉字演变五百例》[LLY]. 李乐毅. 北京语言学院出版社, 1992.

• 《简化字原》 “The origins of simplified Chinese characters.” [LLYJ]. 李乐毅. Sinolingua, 北京教学出版社, 1996. [ISBN: 7800524949; ASIN: B0011A7FSS]

Lǐ Zhuómǐn [LZM]

• 《李氏中文字典》. 李卓敏编纂. 中文大學出版社, 1980. [ISBN: 9789622014374.] 学林出版社, 1981 [1981年12月第一板, 统一书号: 15119.2100].

Lindqvist, Cecilia [L]

• China: Empire of Living Symbols by Cecilia Lindqvist. [Translated from the Swedish by Joan Tate.] New York: Addison-Wesley, 1991. ISBN: 0-201-57009-2. References are to page numbers. Highly recommended. Includes images of oracle bone and bronze forms, a calligraphy section ,and a few stroke order diagrams.

Literary Chinese (Creel) [LCI, LCII, LCIII]

• LITERARY CHINESE BY THE INDUCTIVE METHOD, Herrlee Glessner Creel, Editor, The University of Chicago Press, 1939. In three volumes. Example: LCII.101 refers to Volume II, page 101.

Liú Zhīxìn [LZX]

• 《常用形声字》. 刘之信编. 成都: 四川人民出版社, 1980. [3], [4].

Mathews, R.H. [M]

• MATHEWS’ CHINESE-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, REVISED AMERICAN EDITION, Cambridge, 1943, 1975. [The original edition was written by R.H. Mathews and published in 1931 in Shanghai by China Inland Mission and Presbyterian Mission Press.]

Schuessler (Schüssler), Axel [E, LH]

(Abbreviations: E = EDOC; LH = Later Han)

• ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese. University of Hawai‘i Press, 2007. [ABC Dictionary Series, V. Mair, Ed.; ISBN: 978-0-8248-2975-9. In Wenlin Zìdiǎn entries, references to (Full-form characters) characters treated in EDOC have the form “E.1”; references with the form “E.0” are for the corresponding Simple-form characters (derived from “E.1”); if the Wenlin (2016) electronic edition of EDOC is installed, these references appear as buttons linking to that edition.]

• Minimal Old Chinese and Later Han Chinese: Companion to GSR. University of Hawai‘i Press, 2009. [ABC Dictionary Series, V. Mair, Ed.; ISBN: 978-0-8248-3264-3.]

Shuōwén Jiězì《說文解字》 [S, DZ, FJ, GL, XK, XX]

• 《說文解字 ‧ 電子版》 Shuō Wén Jiě Zì — Diànzǐ Bǎn: Digital Recension of the Eastern Hàn Chinese Grammaticon. Richard Cook. UC Berkeley, Department of Linguistics, Ph.D. Dissertation, 2003. (~1800 p.)

◦ A new printing of this work in four volumes (~2400 p.) was published in 2010 as STEDT Monograph 9, including a newly available fourth volume of the complete text in Seal characters; for more information, see the author’s website:

◦ Wenlin’s Seal font and all Shuowen-related data appearing in Wenlin’s Seal character Zìdiǎn entries reflect the current state of this work (2010, ongoing).

◦ The abbreviations used in Wenlin’s Seal character Zìdiǎn entries are as follows: “S” 《說文解字·注》, 段玉裁 Duàn Yùcái (1815); “GL” 《說文解字·詁林》, 丁福保 (1931); “FJ” 《說文解字·附檢字》. [See Cook (2003) for details on the Shuōwén editions.]

◦ Ongoing work is supported in part by a grant from the US National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), Research Programs Division: Scholarly Editions and Translations [Grant Number RQ-50525-10; 2010-2013], “Eastern Han Chinese Dictionary Translation Project” (Dr. Richard S. Cook, Project Director, in association with Mr. Thomas E. Bishop, Wenlin Institute, Inc. SPC).

◦ Related work was supported by a prior grant from NEH, Office of Digital Humainities: Digital Humanities Start-up Grant [Grant Number HD-50012-07; 2007-2009], “Character Description Language (CDL)” (Dr. Richard S. Cook, Project Director, in association with Mr. Thomas E. Bishop, Wenlin Institute, Inc. SPC).

Sòngběn Guǎngyùn《宋本广韵》 [G, GY]

(Abbreviations: G in non-Seal character zidian entries; GY in Seal character Zìdiǎn entries)

• Sòngběn Guǎngyùn, a.k.a. Guǎngyùn: Middle Chinese rhyming dictionary, expanded version of 《切韵》. Published in the Sòng dynasty, 1011 A.D., compiled by 陳彭年 et. al. Wenlin data derives from work by Richard Cook, subset of which appears as “kSBGY” property in the Unicode Consortium’s Unihan Database (see UAX #38). Current version: Two modern editions of this work were consulted in building the kSBGY indices:

《新校正切宋本廣韻》。台灣黎明文化事業公司 出版,林尹校訂1976 年出版。[This was the edition used by Prof. LUO (台灣桃園縣元智大學中語系羅鳳珠), and in the subsequent revision, conversion, indexing and proofing.]

《新校互註‧宋本廣韻》。香港中文大學,余迺永 1993, 2000 年出版。ISBN: 962-201-413-5; 7-5326-0685-6.

The Unicode Standard, Unihan Database [U]

• The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0.《統一碼標準, 第五丶〇版》 Tǒngyīmǎ Biāozhǔn, dì wǔ diǎn líng bǎn. (Allen, Becker, Cook, Davis, Everson, Freytag, Jenkins, Ksar, McGowan, Moore, Muller, Scherer, Suignard, and Whistler, eds.) Boston: Addison-Wesley Professional; 5th edition (November 3, 2006). Current version:

• “Unicode Standard Annex #38: Unicode 漢 Hàn Database (Unihan)”. (UAX #38; by Richard Cook and John Jenkins, eds.; incorporating key contributions from Wenlin Institute, Inc. SPC) Current version: See UAX #38 for the complete documentation of Unihan properties and the print publications from which they derive.

Wieger, Leon [W]

• CHINESE CHARACTERS, by Dr. L.[Léon] Wieger, S.J. [Georges Frédéric Léon Wieger (1856-1933)], Translated from the French by L.[Leo] Davrout, S.J. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1965. [The first English edition was published in 1915; the second edition (of which the Dover edition is a facsimile) was originally published in 1927. The 3rd French edition (Caractères chinois : étymologie, graphies, lexiques), published in 1916, is available online from Bibliothèque nationale de France: <>. The 1st French edition may have been published in 1899; a 7th French edition was published in 1963.◦Examples of notation: “W.92a” refers to Lesson 92A; “W.PS604” refers to Phonetic Series 604; “W.p734” refers to page 734 (for pages outside the Lessons and Phonetic Series).]

Wáng Hóngyuán 王宏源 [WHY]

• THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE CHARACTERS (《漢字字源入門》) by Wáng Hóngyuán (王宏源), Sinolingua, Beijing, 1993. [2nd printing, 1994; 3rd printing, 1997; ISBN: 7-80052-243-1.]

Wàn Qǐzhì [XFB]

• 《新法编排汉语词典》. 万启智 [or “Mòqǐ Zhì” ?]. 新华出版社, 1985.

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn [XHC]

• 《现代汉语词典》 [Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn ‘Modern Chinese Dictionary’]. 中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室编 [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Linguisitics Research Institute, Dictionary Editorial Office, eds.]. 北京: 商务印书馆, 2007 [第 5 版; 2007 年 11 月北京第 377 次印刷. ISBN: 7-100-04385-9/H.1100.].

• 《现代汉语词典》 [Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn ‘Modern Chinese Dictionary’]. 中国社会科学院语言研究所词典编辑室编 [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Linguisitics Research Institute, Dictionary Editorial Office, eds.]. 北京: 商务印书馆, 1983 [1978 年 12 月第 1 版; 1983 年 1 月第 2 版; 1984 年 1 月北京第 49 次印刷印张 54; 统一书号: 17017.91]. [Newer editions of this dictionary exist, but the above edition served as the basis for important Unihan data (prepared by Bell, Cook et al.):]

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Guīfàn Zìdiǎn [XHG]

• 《现代汉语规范字典》 Xiàndài Hànyǔ Guīfàn Zìdiǎn. [XHG] 主编:李行健主编. 北京: 語文出版社 (《現代漢語規範字典》), 1998. ISBN: 7-80126-346-4/H.76; 3rd edition (2011): ISBN: 978-7-5135-0741-7. [see also XYY.]

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Guīfàn Cídiǎn [GFC]

• 《现代汉语规范词典》 Xiàndài Hànyǔ Guīfàn Cídiǎn. [GFC] 主编:李行健主编. 北京: 語文出版社 (《現代漢語規範詞典》), 2010 (2nd edition). ISBN: 978-7-5600-9518-9.

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Yǔyīn Gàiyào [WZJ]

• 《现代汉语語音概要》 [Xiàndài Hànyǔ Yǔyīn Gàiyào ‘Elements of Modern Chinese Phonology’]. 主编: 吳宗济; 编写: 赵金铭, 朱竹, 刘骥 [Wú Zōngjì et al. eds.]. 北京: 华语教学出版社, 1991 [第 1 版. ISBN: 7-80052-137-0]. [Detailed phonology of Modern Standard (PRC) Chinese, with numerous tables, articulatory diagrams, instrumental analysis, IPA/Pinyin correspondences. In the early 1990s the best-available resource, and still an excellent book!]

Xiàndài Kēxué Jìshù Cídiǎn [KJC]

• 《现代科学技术词典》. 兼作《英汉现代科学技术词汇》. 英汉现代科学技术词汇编辑组. 编审 王同亿, 责任编辑 汪沛霖. 上海科学技术出版社, 1980 [1980年12月第一板; 1982]. [统一书号: 15119.2100; 上下两册.]

Xīn Huá Zìdiǎn [XHZ]

• 《新华字典》. 北京・商务印書馆. 東方书店, 2000. [ISBN: 4497200019, 9784497200013.]

• 《新华字典》. 北京・商务印書馆. 1979 [1979 年修订重拍本; 统一书号: 17017.14].

Yìtǐzì Zìdiǎn [YTZ]

《異體字字典》. [Yìtǐzì Zìdiǎn ‘Dictionary of Chinese Character Variants’.] 編輯者: 教育部國語推行委員會. 編輯委員會主任委員: 李鍌. 總編輯: 曾榮汾. 臺北: 中華民國教育部, 2000. [Ministry of Education, R.O.C.; <>]

Zhōngwén Dà Cídiǎn [ZDC]

《中文大辭典》. [Zhōngwén Dà Cídiǎn “The Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Chinese Language”.] 主任委员: 張其昀. 臺北: 中國文化大學印行 (Chinese Culture University; Hwakang, Yangmingshan; Taipei, Taiwan; ROC), 1973 [1993]. [In 10 volumes; 第一次修訂版; 9th ed.; ISBN: 957-9538-94-8.]

References relating to Character Standardization

Hànzì jiǎn-fántǐzì duìzhào zìdiǎn

• 《漢字簡繁體字對照字典》 ‘Comparative dictionary of Simplified and Traditional Chinese character forms’. 蘇培成編著. 海峰出版社, 中信出版社, 1994. ISBN: 962-238-213-4.

Jiǎnhuàzì fántǐzì yìtǐzì biànxī shǒucè

• 《简化字繁体字异体字辨析手册》 ‘Analytical handbook of Simplified, Traditional, and Variant Chinese character forms’. 胡双宝编. 北京大学出版社, 1996. ISBN: 7-301-03198-X/H.0323.

Yǔwén Wénzì Guīfàn Shǒucè

• 《语文文字规范手册》 ‘Handbook of (PRC) linguistic and orthographic standards’. 语文出版社, 1997 (3rd edition), ISBN: 7-80126-131-3/H.34. [Contains the updated (as of 1997) versions of the following PRC orthographic standards (among others): 《简化字总表》 (1986) and 《第一批异体字整理表》 (1955); see also the 4th edition, 语文出版社; 第4版 (2006年4月1日), ISBN: 9787801846556.]

Zhōnghuá fán-jiǎntǐzì zhèngwù shǒucè

• 《中華繁簡體字正誤手冊》 ‘Proofreader's handbook of Simplified and Traditional Chinese character forms’. 劉板盛編. 中華書局, 1996. ISBN: 962 231 225 X.

References relating to Stroke Order

Chángyòng Guózì Biāozhǔn Zìtǐ Bǐshùn Shǒucè [BZ]

• 《常用國字標準字體筆順手冊》 臺北市:教育部國語推行委員會編輯, 1996. ISBN: 957-00-7082-X. [Taiwanese stroke order. An online version is available: [5].]

Hànzì Zhèngzì Shǒucè [HZS]

• 《汉字正字手册》 上海教育出版社, 1985. ISBN: none; 统一书号 7150-2935. [PRC stroke order.]

Hànzì Zhèngxíng Zìdiǎn

• 《汉字正形字典》 主编:王铁昆. 语文出版社, 2003. ISBN: 7-80126-859-8/H.206. [PRC stroke order.]

Tōngyòng Guīfàn Hànzìbiǎo

• 《通用规范汉字表》 (征求意见稿) 教育部, 国家语言文字工作委员会, 组织研制; 2009-08-12 [20120702: zb2009.pdf>].

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Tōngyòngzì Bǐshùn Guīfàn [B]

• 《现代汉语通用字笔顺规范》 北京: 国家语言文字工作委员会标准化工作委员会编. 语文出版社, 1997 [2000]. ISBN: 7-80126-201-8/H.42. [PRC stroke order.]

Xíng-yīn-yì Guīfàn Zìdiǎn [XYY]

• 《形音義規範字典》/ 主编:李行健. 臺北市:五南圖書出版股份有限公司;語文出版社 (《現代漢語規範字典》), 2003. ISBN: 957-11-3317-5. [Taiwanese stroke order; also contains PRC simplified characters, but without stroke diagrams; cf. XHG.]

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Guīfàn Zìdiǎn [XHG]

• 《现代汉语规范字典》 主编:李行健主编. 北京: 語文出版社 (《現代漢語規範字典》), 1998. ISBN: 7-80126-346-4/H.76. [Earlier PRC original of ROC 《形音義規範字典》, cf. XYY.]


• Reading & Writing Chinese. William McNaughton. North Clarendon, Vermont: Tuttle Publishing, 2005. ISBN: 0-8048-3509-8.


• Essential Kanji. P.G. O’Neill. New York & Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1973 [1988]. ISBN: 0-8348-0082-9. [Japanese stroke order.]


• Learn to Write Chinese Characters. Johan Bjorksten. Yale University Press, 1994. ISBN: 0-3000-5771-7.


• Mandarin Primer. Yuen Ren Chao. (趙元任) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948. Volume 2 contains stroke order diagrams, p. 136-42.


• Read and Write Chinese: A Simplified Guide to the Chinese Characters. Rita Mei-Wah Choy. China West Books, 1990. ISBN: 0-9413-4011-2.

References relating to Character and Word Frequencies

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Pínlǜ Cídiǎn [XHPC]

• Modern Chinese Frequency Dictionary.《现代汉语频率词典》,北京语言学院语言教学研究所编著。Beijing: Beijing Language Institute, 1986. First edition 1986/6, 2nd printing 1990/4. ISBN: 7-5619-0094-5/H.67. [Character and word frequencies from a sample of 1,807,389 characters. Wenlin data derives from work by Richard Cook (from August 1994 to March 1995), subset of which appears as “kHanyuPinlu” property in the Unicode Consortium’s Unihan Database (see UAX #38). Current version: [6].

Zuì Chángyòng de Hànzì shì Nǎxiē?

• 《最常用的汉字是哪些?》 Which are the Most Commonly Used Chinese Characters? (Chinese Writing Reform Committee and National Standards Office, 1982) Character frequencies from a sample of 11,080,000 characters.

Ann, T.K.

• Cracking the Chinese Puzzles, by T. K. Ann, 1982 Stockflows Co., Ltd., 37 Queen’s Road, Central, Hong Kong. Character frequencies from a sample of 1,408,573 characters.

References consulted in the ABC Comprehensive Chinese-English Dictionary

Chan Sin-wei

• Chan Sin-wei. A Glossary of Translation Terms. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1993.

Chao and Yang [CY]

• Chao, Yuen Ren and Lien Sheng Yang. Concise Dictionary of Spoken Chinese. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1947. Particularly useful for information on boundness of characters.

Chao, Yuen Ren

• Chao, Yuen Ren. Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968. Magisterial in its coverage and valuable for odds and ends of usage.

Chen Xinwang

• Chen Xinwang, ed. 《汉英语林》Hàn-Yīng Yǔlín. Shanghai: Jiaotong University Press, 1991.

Chen Zhujuan

• Chen Zhujuan, ed. 《汉英成语手册》Hàn-Yīng Chéngyǔ Shǒucè. Hong Kong: Sanlian Shudian, 1981.

Chinese-English Glossary of Linguistic Terms

Chinese-English Glossary of Linguistic Terms. Compiled by the Chinese-English Translation Assistance Group. Kensington, MD: Dunwoody Press, 1986.


• Ching, Eugene and Nora. 201 Chinese Verbs. Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 1977.

Collier, David

• Collier, David. Chinese-English Dictionary of Colloquial Terms Used in Modern Chinese Literature. New Haven: Far Eastern Publications, 1979.

Dai Mingzhong

• Dai Mingzhong et al., eds. 《汉英综合词典》Hàn-Yīng Zǒnghé Cídiǎn. Shanghai: Shanghai Waiyu Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 1991.

Dàoxù Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn

• 《倒序现代汉语词典》Dàoxù Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn. Compiled by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1987. Useful for its reverse order.

Dictionnaire Français de la Langue Chinoise

Dictionnaire Français de la Langue Chinoise. Compiled by L'Institut Ricci. Taibei: Institut Ricci and Kuangchi Press, 1976. Sound scholarship. Strong in traditional Chinese culture.

Ding Guangxun

• Ding Guangxun, ed. 《新汉英词典》Xin Hàn-Yīng Cídiǎn. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1985.

Hàn-Yīng Bǎikē Cíhuì Shǒucè

• 《汉英百科词汇手册》Hàn-Yīng Bǎikē Cíhuì Shǒucè. Compiled by Hàn-Yīng Bǎikē Cíhuì Shǒucè Compilation Group. Beijing: Hangkong Gongye Chubanshe, 1991.

Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Cíhuì

• 《汉语拼音词汇》Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Cíhuì. Revised edition. By Hànyǔ Pīnyīn Cíhuì Compilation Group. Beijing: Yuwen Chubanshe, 1989. A semi-official wordlist of 60,400 items compiled by members of the State Language Commission.

Hartmann and Stork

• 《语言与语言学词典》Yǔyán yǔ Yǔyánxué Cídiǎn. 上海: 上海辞书出版社, 1981 [1984]. 翻译: 黄长著, 林书武, 等. Translation of: Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. R.R.K. Hartmann & F.C. Stork. London: Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., 1972.

Huang Yen-kai

• Huang Yen-kai. Dictionary of Chinese Idiomatic Phrases. Hong Kong: Eton Press, 1964.


• Kuraishi Takeshirō. Iwanami Chūgokugo Jiten [Iwanami's Dictionary of Chinese]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1990.

Lai and Lin

• Lai Ming and Lin Tai-yi, eds. New Lin Yutang Chinese-English Dictionary. Hong Kong: Panorama Press, 1987. Especially useful for non-PRC terminology and parts of speech.

Li and Thomspon

• Li, Charles and Sandra A. Thompson. Mandarin Chinese. A Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1989.

Li and Yan

• Li Shujuan and Yan Ligang. Chinese-English Dictionary of Modern Slang of China. Hong Kong: Haifeng Chubanshe, 1995.

Li Xingjian

• Li Xingjian et al., eds. 《新词新语词典》Xīncí Xīnyǔ Cídiǎn. Beijing: Yuwen Chubanshe, 1989.

Li Zhenjie and Vivian Ling

• Li Zhenjie and Vivian Ling. A Dictionary of New Terms and Phrases of Contemporary China. Beijing: New World Press, 2000.

Liu Runqing

• Liu Runqing et al., tr. Longman Yǔyánxué Cídiǎn. Taiyuan: Shanxi Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 1993. [Translation of: Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics.]

Liu Xiyan

• Liu Xiyan. 《汉英新词新意字典》Hàn-Yīng Xīncí Xīnyì Zìdiǎn. Changchun: Jilin Daxue Chubanshe, 1996.

Luo Zhufeng

• Luo Zhufeng, ed. 《汉语大词典》Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn. Shanghai: Hànyǔ Dà Cídiǎn Chubanshe 12 vols + Appendix Index, 1990.


Mathews’ Chinese-English Dictionary. Revised American edition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1945.


• McCawley, James D. The Eater's Guide to Chinese Characters. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Modern Chinese-English Technical and General Dictionary

Modern Chinese-English Technical and General Dictionary. 3 vols. Anon. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. [Good for its extensive coverage (212,000 entries) and strict alphabetical order, but clumsy to use because transcription and characters are in separate volumes.]

Shi Zhengxin

• Shi Zhengxin, Wang Chunjing, and Zhang Jianzhong. 《汉英分类成语词典》Hàn-Yīng Fēnlèi Chéngyǔ Cídiǎn. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing Co., 1991.

Su Yongchang

• Su Yongchang. 《语言学常用词汇, 英汉对照表》Yǔyánxué Chángyòng Cíhuì, Yīng-Hàn Duìzhàobiǎo. Hong Kong Ligong Daxue, 1998.

Sun Quanzhou

• Sun Quanzhou et al., eds. 《现代汉语学习词典》Xiàndài Hànyǔ Xuéxí Cídiǎn. Shanghai: Shanghai Waiyu Jiaoyu Chubanshe, 1995.

Tong Ting Chi

• Tong Ting Chi. 《漢語詞法句法論集》Hànyǔ Cífǎ Jùfǎ Lùnjí. Taibei, 1998.

Tsao Fengfu

• Tsao Fengfu. Sentence and Clause Structure in Chinese. A Functional Perspective. Taibei: Student Book Co., 1990.

Wang Huan

• Wang Huan, ed. 《汉英双解词典》Hàn-Yīng Shuāngjiě Cídiǎn. Beijing: Beijing Yuyan Wenhua Daxue Chubanshe, 1997.

Wáng Tóngyì

• Wáng Tóngyì, ed. 《汉英科技词汇大全》Hàn-Yīng Kējì Cíhuì Dàquán. [Eng. title: Chinese-English Thesaurus of Scientific and Technical Terms] 天津: 天津人民出版社, 1987. [王同亿 主编; ISBN: 7-201-00118-3/Z.6.]

• Wang Tongyi, ed. 《新现代汉语词典》Xīn Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn. Hainan: Hainan Chubanshe, 1992.

• Wang Tongyi. 《语言大典》Yǔyán Dàdiǎn. 2 vols. Hainan: Sanhuan Chubanshe, 1990.

Wei Dongya

• Wei Dongya, ed. 《汉英词典》A Chinese-English Dictionary [Revised Edition]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 1995.

Weingartner and Yang

• Weingartner, Fredric and Paul Fu-mien Yang. Chinese Linguistic Usage 1925-1975 A Contrastive Glossary English and Chinese (in Chinese). Taibei: Student Book Co., 1985.

Wu, C.K. and K.S.

• Wu, C.K. and K.S. Compact English-Chinese Dictionary (Yale Romanization). Third Edition. Hong Kong: Chinese Language Research Association, 1976.

Wu Guanghua

• Wu Guanghua, ed. 《汉英大词典》Hàn-Yīng Dà Cídiǎn. 2 vol. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 1993. [Distinguished by extensive coverage (more than 220,000 entries), particularly in the sciences.]

Wú Jǐngróng

• Wú Jǐngróng (吴景荣), ed. Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary. (PCED) Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1979.

• Wú Jǐngróng and Cheng Zhenqiu, eds. New Age Chinese-English Dictionary. Beijing: Commercial Press, 2000.

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Cídiǎn. 《现代汉语词典》. Compiled by Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Beijing: Shangwu Yinshuguan, 1990. First-rate scholarship, semi-authoritative. (See also [#XHC|XHC]] above.)

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Pínlǜ Cídiǎn

Xiàndài Hànyǔ Pínlǜ Cídiǎn. 《现代汉语频率词典》. Compiled by Language Teaching and Research Institute of the Beijing Languages Institute. Beijing: Beijing Yuyan Xueyuan Chubanshe, 1986. Valuable source of frequency data based on a corpus of 1,800,000 characters.

Yǐn Bīnyōng

• Yǐn Bīnyōng (尹斌庸) and Mary Felley (傅曼丽). Chinese Romanization: Pronunciation and Orthography. Beijing: Sinolingua, 1990. Valuable for detailed application of rules of Pīnyīn orthography.

• Yǐn Bīnyōng (尹斌庸) et al., eds. 《新华拼写词典》Xīnhuá Pīnxiě Cídiǎn. 商务印书馆, 2002. [ISBN: 9787100034142; 作者: 尹斌庸, 刘一玲, 邓增松, 邱镜瑶.]

Yìngyòng Hànyǔ Cídiǎn

Yìngyòng Hànyǔ Cídiǎn (Practical Chinese Dictionary). 《应用汉语词典》 Compiled by the Commercial Press Lexicography Research Center. Beijing: Commercial Press, 2002. Remarkable chiefly for its indication of parts of speech and its greater use of close juncture in writing together strings of Pinyin syllables.

Yú Yúnxiá

• Yú Yúnxiá 余云霞 et al., eds. 《汉英逆引词典》Hàn-Yīng Nìyǐn Cídiǎn. Beijing: Commercial Press, 1985. Useful especially for parts of speech and its reverse order.

Zhang Fanjie

• Zhang Fanjie, ed. Far East Chinese-English Dictionary. Taibei: Far East Book Co., 1992. [Careful scholarship and extensive coverage, particularly in traditional Chinese culture.]

Zhang Xinglian

• Zhang Xinglian and Zhao Shuhan. A Glossary of Chinese Archaeology. Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1983.

Zhong Jialing

• Zhong Jialing, ed. 《现代汉语缩略语词典》Xiàndài Hànyǔ Suōlüèyǔ Cídiǎn. Jinan: Qilu Shushe, 1986.

Zhōngguó Dàbǎikē Quánshū

Zhōngguó Dàbǎikē Quánshū, Yǔyán Wénzì. 《中国大百科全书, 语言文字》. Beijing: Zhongguo Dabaike Quanshu Chubanshe, 1982.

Zhōngwén Shūmiànyǔ Pínlǜ Cídiǎn

Zhōngwén Shūmiànyǔ Pínlǜ Cídiǎn. 《中文書面語頻率詞典》. By Chinese Knowledge Information Processing (CKIP) Group. Taibei: Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, 1994. Valuable source of frequency data based on a mammoth corpus of 14,457,534 characters.

References relating to Mandarin Chinese Phonology

Works in the following list relate to Zìdiǎn and Cídiǎn entries, and to information tabulated in transcriptions.wenlin

•《实用中国语言学词典》(See GBY above.)

•《漢語大詞典》(See C above.)

•《漢語大字典》(See D above.)

•《现代汉语語音概要》(See WZJ above.)

•《现代汉语词典》(See XHC above.)